No 4/2004 - July/August 2004

Lighthouses of Australia Inc


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Letter from the Editor

Welcome to the July/August Bulletin, edition 4/2004.

This edition of the Bulletin is a little late being published, as our Chief Editor, Steve Merson, was occupied as volunteer caretaker at Green Cape Lighthouse over July.

Green Cape LighthouseSteve Merson at Green CapeWe begin this edition with some background history on the Green Cape Lighthouse. Built in the early 1880s, it was the first cast concrete lighthouse in Australia.

Steve Merson worked as the relief caretaker at Green Cape for six weeks - the story of his time at the Cape is fascinating.

Cape Leeuwin LighthouseThe Lighthouse StevensonsCyril Curtain, LoA Inc Committee member, talks about the new National Heritage Council Act (2003) which protects some of our Commonwealth Heritage listed lighthouses.

Erika Johnson, caretaker at the Swan Island Lightstation, reviews the book 'The Lighthouse Stevensons', about the family of engineers famous for building lighthouses in Scotland.

MV Cape DonCitadel Island lighthouse restorationRecent working bees are achieving remarkable progress towards the re-commissioning of the MV Cape Don.

The Citadel Island lighthouse has been restored and was opened at an official ceremony in June.

South Neptune Island Lighthouse Roger & Sue Cavanagh, former residents at South Neptune Island, discuss the continuing problem of asbestos at the lighthouse.

Members and friends are invited to the Lighthouses of Australia Inc 2004 Annual Dinner Weekend, being held on 2 October in Launceston, Tasmania.

Checking the weather instruments at Maatsukyer IslandTasmanian Parks & Wildlife Service are calling for expressions of interest for caretakers at Maatsuyker Island in 2005.

Macquarie Lighthouse cottage for saleThe Macquarie Lighthouse headkeepers' cottage is for sale - asking price AUD$1.95 million.

John Ibbotson and some of his photographsJohn Ibbotson, renowned lighthouse photographer, is holding another exhibition of his work.

Crookhaven Heads LighthouseLoA Inc regularly receives letters from readers seeking information about ancestors and friends who worked as lighthouse keepers - information is sought regarding George Whitnall & Thomas Howlett: keepers at Crowdy Head; Robert Wallace: keeper at Bustard Head; William Brown: keeper at Rottnest Island; and Samuel Westbrook: keeper at Swan Island. We also have an enthusiastic letter from Jeff Allen who is concerned for the preservation of the Crookhaven Lighthouse.

Enjoy reading this Bulletin, and if you are not a member of Lighthouses of Australia, and would like to be involved in preserving, promoting and protecting Australia's lighthouses, join now!

Kristie Eggleston
LoA Bulletin Editor
Email Bulletin Editor


Light the coast like a street with lamps

By Steve Merson, Chief Editor

Green Cape Lighthouse
Green Cape Lighthouse

Photo:  Marguerite Stephen

Back in the early 1800s, as shipping traffic increased around the Australian coastline, the increasing amount of shipwrecks on the south coast began to alarm the authorities in the new colony.

After rounding Cape Howe (at the border between Victoria and New South Wales), shipmasters knew they could hug the coast to avoid the south setting East Australian Current, which flows at 1-3 knots. Close inshore, the strength of the current is reduced.

However, Green Cape projects into the northerly sailing course and in this notoriously stormy region, many ships founded in Disaster Bay, caught on a lee shore in a sudden blow, subject to strong winds and huge seas, sometimes foggy conditions, and no lights on shore to warn them of the danger. Increasingly, more ships and their valuable cargoes were being lost in this area.

Green Cape in the afternoon sun
Green Cape in the late afternoon sun

Photo:  Steve Merson

In 1873, at a meeting of all the principle officers responsible for shipping and navigational safety for the colonies of Australia, Captain Francis Hixon, Superintendent of Pilots, Lighthouses and Harbours for NSW, moved that, "Having in view the extent of the traffic on this coast, and that Green Cape forms a considerable projection on the line of coast after rounding Cape Howe, a first order revolving light should be erected at Green Cape."

Hixon's idea was to "light the coast like a street with lamps".

James Barnet's plans for Green Cape Lighthouse
James Barnet's original plans for Green Cape Lighthouse

Photo courtesy:  National Archives of Australia, A9568, 1/6/1

It took another seven years to obtain the finance and complete the plans prepared by James Barnet, colonial architect for NSW 1865-90. Barnet played a major role in the construction of several other NSW lighthouses - Montague Island, Barranjoey Head, Smoky Cape, South Solitary Island, Sugarloaf Point - his 'signature' features are the distinctive double-curved gunmetal handrail and the corbels that support the wide gallery, all of which are fashioned in bluestone. He was influenced by 'Classicism' and the Italian Renaissance period, which created an architectural style more European than English. The attached oil stores and workrooms are a distinctive feature of NSW lighthouses

Green Cape Lighthouse bullseye
Green Cape's bullseye lens

Photo:  Steve Merson

Tenders for the construction of a lighthouse at Green Cape were called in mid-1880. The original tender was for a stone lighthouse and rubble quarters, but the local sedimentary stone was considered too soft and no one tendered.

The specifications were changed to concrete, and the budget for the project was initially set in 1879 at £17,000. The decision to build in concrete influenced the design - the straight lines facilitated the pouring of concrete into wooden forms, hence the square base and octagonal tower. In 1880, this was the tallest lighthouse to be built in NSW and was the most extensive and ambitious mass concrete project attempted in the colony.

Albert Wood Aspinall, a stonemason and builder, was the successful tenderer in December 1880. He quoted £12,936 to build the concrete tower to the lantern room stage; two houses of double brick with cement render, and associated structures. The project had many logistical difficulties, but Aspinall was innovative and determined. (His story in detail will be told in a future edition of the Bulletin).

Bittangabee Bay lighthouse store
Bittangabee Bay lighthouse store

Photo:  Steve Merson

The nearest safe anchorage to land the building materials and supplies was in Bittangabee Bay, north along the coast from Green Cape. The contractor's ketch made daily trips from Eden to Bittangabee where Aspinall built a wooden jetty and storeroom. Then he took five months to construct a seven kilometre-long wooden tramway through the forest and heathland to connect Bittangabee with Green Cape, arriving there in June 1881 to commence building the light tower and houses. Materials and supplies were transported to the site on wooden trolleys pulled by horses. The total cost of this operation was £357.

Twenty or thirty men would have been camped in tents and makeshift huts up in the shelter of the tree line. They built a cookhouse, site foreman's office, a carpenter's workshop, brick kilns and assorted storage shelters. The weather would at times be horrendous.

Green Cape Lighthouse Chance Bros plate
Chance Brothers timing plate

Photo:  Steve Merson

Rock was quarried from the rock platforms at the bottom of the steep cliff below the site, and hauled up using buckets and horses. The rock was crushed by hand to form the aggregate, which was mixed with Portland cement shipped out from England, local sand, and water to make the concrete mix.

The form chosen was for low cost and ease of construction, but a misunderstanding of the nature of the foundations at the site proved to be disastrous for Aspinall. He thought he would find solid bedrock two to three metres down, but he struck more than seven metres of white clay, requiring unforeseen massive excavations. His men took several more months to dig through the clay to rock, Aspinall's budget was blown, and he was forced to request a further £1,827 to continue. 

The contract with the brick maker was for between 170,000 and 200,000 bricks to build the houses, stables, telegraph station, various outbuildings, and brick, cement-lined, underground rainwater tanks, each holding 27,000 litres (6,000 gallons).

Summary of costs
Item Cost (in pounds £)
Tower and quarters £12,936
Additional foundations £1,827
Lantern room and prism £3,108 (ex England, Chance Brothers)
Bittangabee Bay project £357
Total £18,228

Aspinall had stated that he would complete the construction in 18 months, but by early 1883, two years after he had started, he had run out of money and was financially ruined. Creditors were called in to complete the last stages of the tower's construction, and Green Cape light was first lit or exhibited on 1 November 1883.

Green Cape Lighthouse lens panel
First order Chance Brothers Fresnel lantern

Photo:  Steve Merson

The lighthouse stands 23 metres above the sea. The height of the tower from the ground floor to the balcony is 20 metres, and the top of the copper-domed lantern house stands a further 9 metres. The focal plane of light is approx 44 metres above the high water mark.

A first order, revolving dioptric holophotal Fresnel prism was installed, and a four-wick kerosene-burning lamp emitted a light with an intensity of 100,000 candlepower, which was visible for 19 nautical miles (35 km). The original character of the light was one flash every 50 seconds (a modern car headlight on full beam is about 80,000 candelas). 

The wick burner may have been replaced around 1910 by a Douglas incandescent burner using vaporised kerosene and a glass chimney around a silk mantle. Made by Chance Bros, it was probably the most common means of illumination in lighthouses at the time, and burned about two gallons (9 litres) of kerosene each night.

Green Cape Lighthouse tower
The Green Cape tower

Photo:  Steve Merson

In 1913, Commander Brewis recommended that the speed of the light sequence be increased to a white flash every 10 seconds for a one second duration. It was three years after the light source was upgraded in 1923, with the installation of a Ford Schmidt burner, before the character of the light was changed in accordance with Brewis' recommendation. 

Green Cape Lighthouse winding mechanism
The winding mechanism to lift the weights that rotated the lens

Though not the original clockwork mechanism (this was salvaged from a second hand dealer in Hampton, Victoria) it is typical of clockwork mechanism installed in the NSW lights of the era.
Photo:  Steve Merson

Kerosene and air were mixed together to form a vapour which was ignited in an improved autoform mantle. The base of the lamp was heated with two blowlamps until 'cherry red'. Three tubes sucked in air and when it reached a certain temperature, the mantle was lit. Fuel was supplied from two cast iron cylindrical tanks half filled with kerosene, which had to be regularly hand pumped during the night to maintain a constant pressure of 65 psi. This system increased the intensity of the light to 327,000 candlepower.

When the diesel generators were installed in 1962, an electric motor replaced the manual winding system and a globe provided the light source, increasing the strength of the light to 475,000 candelas (this term came into use after 1946). By 1967, with improved generators and a 1000 watt Tungsten halogen globe, the intensity of the light was boosted to one million candelas, making it visible over 20 nm (40 km) to sea. The character of the light was changed to show two flashes, three seconds apart between intervals of ten seconds. This is written as Grp Fl.2 10sec.

The three-keeper watch system was reduced to two keepers, and later to only one.

When automation and de-manning became the reality at Green Cape, a shorter, steel latticework frame was erected below the big old tower, and a small plastic solar-powered light was activated. The character remains the same, but the intensity and visibility is greatly reduced. The big light was officially turned off for the last time on 17 March 1992.

The first order Fresnel prism is still in its place in the lantern room. The mercury has been removed from the well, upon which the prism floated and turned for 109 years.

Lighthouse specifications
  Original concrete tower New lattice tower
Height 29 metres 15 metres
Globe 1000 watts 36 watts
Intensity 1,000,000 candelas 37,500 candelas
Distance 19-26 nautical miles 12-15 nautical miles (in good conditions)

In 1983, the Commonwealth Government calculated a cost of approx $150,000 a year to run a manned lighthouse like Green Cape. The annual cost of maintaining the plastic automated light on the steel latticework construction next to the old tower is approx $13,000.

Green Cape lantern room
Green Cape lantern room

Photo:  Ian Clifford

The outstanding benefit of having the working light separate from the original tower is that we have the rare opportunity to enter the tower and walk around and up - to view the magnificent lens up close and get a feel for the environment and atmosphere of a traditional lighthouse.

I could hear its very heartbeat...

At sunset it became more than just alive... together with the powerful hiss of the vapour burner, the spinning whirring gear wheels and the soft clunks and thuds made by the weights and chains as they fell slowly to the base of the tower. I could hear its very heartbeat...

Email Steve Merson

'Lightkeeper' for six weeks

Steve Merson at Green Cape
Steve Merson on the balcony at Green Cape Lighthouse

Photo:  Lynda Merson

Steve Merson, Chief Editor LoA Inc, recently had the rare privilege of assuming the position of relief caretaker at Green Cape Lightstation whilst the regular caretakers took their annual six weeks' leave. Steve's former maritime experiences, general handyman talents and, of course, interest in lighthouses, was deemed suitable by the NSW NPWS for him to take on the role, normally filled by NPWS employees. The following is Steve's account of his time at the Cape.

Green Cape Lightstation is situated on the far south coast of NSW, in the Ben Boyd National Park, south of Eden.

The original occupants of this area were the Thauaira/Thawa people of the Yuin (Murring) nation, who have lived here for over 6,000 years. The Yuin nation extended from Wiricanoe (Cape Howe) to the Shoalhaven area. Bundooro was one of the aboriginal names for the cape, and it is believed that this was a men's area, a teaching area for young men. Pertangerbee (Bittangabee Bay), which is several kilometres north along the coast from the cape, was an important camp place and teaching ground. Naa-chi (Nadgee National Park), on the southern side of Tartarerer (Disaster Bay) is said to be the resting-place of their Rainbow Serpent. The Aborigines retain strong traditional and spiritual links to the land, and people in the National Parks Service wish to maintain a collaborative relationship with Koori people, acknowledging their cultural beliefs and themselves adopting a philosophy of custodianship of this beautiful part of NSW.

Green Cape Lighthouse
The end of road - Green Cape Lightstation

Photo:  Steve Merson

In October 1798, Mathew Flinders recorded his observation of the prominent, lushly vegetated promontory of land in his journal, 'We came abreast of a smooth, sloping point which, from its appearance, and being unnoticed in Captain Cook's chart, I named Green Point.'

Other notes refer to 'the cape at Green Point', and it has come to be known as Green Cape. Up until recently, the aboriginal name was still printed in brackets beside the European one on the British Admiralty navigation chart of this coast. Interestingly, on the chart, the coastal outline that extends down from Twofold Bay appears to depict the profile of an aboriginal face, culminating at the point of his beard on the tip of the cape.

Green Cape Headkeepers cottage
The back door of the Green Cape headkeepers' cottage

Photo:  Steve Merson

The character of the light is the lighthouse's identity, its position irrefutable. At sea, where solitude prevails and everything ceaselessly moves, mariners form special relationships with the lights - some extend over many years of close familiarity while others are a one-time passing alliance on a long passage, no less meaningful. A visual sighting and a relative bearing enables navigators to fix a position on the chart and confirm their ship's safety, causing many to be utterly grateful for their existence.

On the other hand, many shore folk see lighthouses as remote and isolated landmarks on the edge of the sea, occupied by eccentric types whose lonely lives appear to be idiosyncratic and curiously romantic. The keepers were, by virtue of their location, reclusive, and their activities more closely related to matters of the sea than the conventions of land-based life. It was an environment and a lifestyle that only a few people understood or were even aware of.

Squall from inside the Green Cape tower
The new lattice tower as seen from inside the old tower during a squall

Photo:  Steve Merson

Six weeks at Green Cape - would it be possible to experience even a little of what it would have been like to be a keeper? Everything is different these days. There are no lightkeeping duties at all (AMSA leases back the site for the new latticework steel tower that carries the automatic light). We have the benefit of advanced communication systems - phone, fax, Internet, radio and television. The resident caretaker has the full operational and administrative support from NPWS, in regard to the replenishment of fuel, the upkeep of the lightstation's solar power system, and rubbish removal. Contract labour is used for major repairs and maintenance on buildings and plant, guests stay overnight in the re-furbished, self-contained assistant lightkeepers' cottages, and improved road access means a steady stream of day visitors who pay for conducted tours of the lighthouse.

Steve Merson Tour Guide
Steve does his 'tour guide talk' in front of the lens

Photo:  Barbara Konkolowicz

Previously, when the light was still manned, and more so in the early days, the whole area was off-limits to the public. In 1917, the Commonwealth Lighthouse Service's booklet, Instructions to Lightkeepers, was quite specific:

Item 72. No persons other than the Keepers and their families are to be allowed to remain overnight on any Lighthouse Quarters or premises without the permission of the District Officer. The restriction will not apply to -
a) Officials, workmen, or contractors in the employ of the Dept.
b) Belated or distressed travellers
c) Shipwrecked mariners

Item 75. No sightseers will be allowed at Lightstations unless they hold a pass signed by the District Officer. Visitors will not be admitted to Lightstations before 10.00am or after one hour before sunset. They must invariably be accompanied by a Lightkeeper.

Item 76. The Head Lightkeeper is to exercise a proper discretion in the admission of visitors. If the lightkeeper's duties might be interfered with by the presence of visitors, he is authorised to refuse permission altogether.

Resident kangaroo at Green Cape
The resident 'old man' roo at Green Cape

Photo:  Steve Merson

Such protocols existed to prevent the keeper being distracted from his prime purpose, which was to attend the light and maintain a continuous lookout for ships in distress.

Item 29. The Lightkeepers are never to allow any interests, private or otherwise, to interfere with the discharge of their duties, which are of the greatest importance to the safety of navigation...

John Ellis & Steve Merson at Green Cape
John Ellis, great grandson of Albert Aspinall, builder of the Green Cape tower, and Steve Merson

Photo:  Dianne Ellis

All this has now passed. As the era of the lightkeepers fades, the importance of their work and the perceived mystique surrounding their lifestyle is distilled down to logbook entries and oral history. Coastal sailors and fishermen will always want to see the loom of a light or an obvious tower on a prominent headland to reassure them of their exact location, but satellite navigation systems have all but obliterated the original purpose of the working lighthouse.

The 'kerosene keepers' and their contemporaries have stories to tell - mostly about the harsh realities of a regulated, hierarchical system of endless hard work in remote locations, requiring a wide range of practical skills, patience, and an innovative approach to unique problems that had to be overcome without much help. Their wives and children were equally self-reliant and together they endured great difficulties for long periods - living a style of life that is often, inevitably, romanticised by those who would write about them.

Green Cape Lighthouse globe
The modern globe inside the old Fresnel lens

Photo:  Steve Merson

However, some stories that surface in the collective memory speak of a wondrous, free existence in a wilderness of magnificent landforms, endless skies, stunningly beautiful seascapes and an abundance of natural species of wildlife. As families together, some speak of experiencing paradise. It just depends on who you were and where you were stationed.

Kevin Mulcahy & Steve Merson at Green Cape
Kevin Mulcahy and Steve Merson

Photo:  Steve Merson

Since the automation and subsequent de-manning of the Australian lighthouses, a transition has occurred whereby most of the significant lightstations have been placed under the management of the National Parks and Wildlife Departments of each state. The architecture and the reserves upon which they sit are now being treated as cultural heritage sites. What remains of the official records, logs and visitors books is an incomplete collection of documents in the state and federal archives. The rest have been destroyed, purloined by past keepers, or snaffled by persons unknown. Scattered diaries and letters from the period show up from time to time. From the memories of those who were there, from anecdotes, stories and photos handed down through the families of the old keepers, the rich history of the lighthouse era is being collected, disseminated and documented for preservation.

Green Cape in stormy weather
Green Cape Lighthouse and Headkeepers' cottage

Photo:  Steve Merson

My time at Green Cape has given me a small window of insight to the conditions experienced by inhabitants of the lightstation. The northern migration of whales provides a glimpse of humpbacks swimming past the front door, the adolescent male fur seals loll around off the point all day, every day, and sea eagles circle on updrafts looking for fish meals. The black rock wallabies spring about the place, and the old man 'roo just chews away on the grass around the cottages, unperturbed by humans.

Green Cape Lighthouse brass air vents
Brass air vents around the inside of the lantern room

Photo:  Steve Merson

Ships steam by every day. Trawlers, tugs, yachts, abalone boats and runabouts occupy the waters between Twofold Bay and Disaster Bay. There is always something to focus the binoculars on.

The daily chores and checklists provide an order to the days. There is firewood to carry in to the three cottages, and various housekeeping details to attend. The tours of the lighthouse allow me to repeatedly present the geological and cultural history that paints a backdrop to the lighthouse and the local area. Mostly, people are intrigued by it all, because initially they are impressed and even awed by the beauty and solidity of the light tower, and the surrounding scenery.

The winding staircase inside the Green Cape tower
The winding staircase inside the Green Cape tower

Photo:  Steve Merson

During the school holidays, the assistant keepers' cottages have been fully booked. Guests come here to enjoy a few uncomplicated days of wild beauty and fresh sea air. Inevitably, most people are grateful to have had a meaningful connection with the environment and to have witnessed natural wonders and wildlife; others express a humble reverence for all that have lived and died here, recognising through contemplation the spiritual nature of the cape.

All the while, the lighthouse stands immutable. She is the symbol of human existence, colonial endeavour, hope and salvation. When the sun shines, she glows. When the wind blows, she sings - a booming, deep, pervasive array of monumental harmonics that carry the force of storms at sea. In a stretch of imagination, one might hear the vocal longing of countless lost souls forever out of reach of land. Even though her systems have been shut down, the hissing mantle extinguished, the mechanism halted... her heartbeat has not been completely stilled.

Green Cape Lighthouse during a squall
The view from the balcony during a squall

Note the gunmetal curved railing, typical of Barnet-designed lighthouses in NSW.
Photo:  Steve Merson

I went up the tower in a southerly blow when the wind was exceeding 70 knots, and that experience may well be the peak of my time here... equally as significant to the inexplicable events of my first night in the head keeper's house. To be woken, in no uncertain terms, by the ghost of a drowned fisherman is worth an entry in the log. Stories abound about the unmistakable presence of benevolent spirits in the houses and around the grounds of this lightstation, and there is every reason to accept that ghosts may well be a fixture in many historical lighthouses.

Steve Merson inside the lens at Green Cape
Steve Merson pensively gazes out from inside the massive lens in the Green Cape tower

Photo:  Louise Tieppo

To take care of a lighthouse is a rare privilege.

Craig - thanks for the opportunity to stay here, for your support, and for arranging the trips to Gabo and Montague. Much appreciated. Alan and Sandy - thanks for your trust in allowing me to live in your home, and for the use of your extensive library. To the Parks employees who drove down the track to Green Cape to give me a hand and have a yarn - John, Bruce, Darryl, Garry, Lyn, Bill, Steve, and Jim - thanks, I enjoyed your company, and the music. Leo - thanks for your hospitality at Gabo, and for the benefit of your knowledge. Ross & Jack - I enjoyed the trip out to Montague, and thanks for making it possible.

Email Steve Merson

Commonwealth Heritage Listed Lighthouses

by Cyril Curtain, LoA Inc Committee Member

The Commonwealth Heritage List of Commonwealth-owned or leased places protected under the new National Heritage Council Act (2003) contains 27 lighthouses, including 5 described as lightstations. The full list, along with brief citations for each place, can be accessed at

There are 162 lighthouses on the old Australian Heritage Commission list, but that list also includes lights owned by non-Commonwealth bodies.

The current list: 







Montague Island Lighthouse
Montague Island Lighthouse, NSW
Photo: Ian Clifford
Cape Leeuwin Lighthouse
Cape Leeuwin Lighthouse, WA

Photo: Jeff Williams
Cape Northumberland Lighthouse
Cape Northumberland Lighthouse, SA
Photo: Ed Kavaliunas
Mersey Bluff Lighthouse
Mersey Bluff Lighthouse, TAS
Photo: Peter Sharp

A surprising aspect of the list is that 9 of the 27 are in Tasmania. In general, the reason for omissions from or inclusions in the list is that the place is no longer Commonwealth-owned or leased - most of the lightstations were transferred to the states by the 1990s. In some cases, the manned light was superseded by an independent, solar- powered automatic light. However, where the light in the tower was still in use, the lighthouse was leased back by the Commonwealth.

Cape Otway Lighthouse
Cape Otway Lighthouse

Photo: Winsome Bonham

In Victoria, the Wilsons Promontory and Cape Otway lightstations have been incorporated into their adjacent national parks. However, the light in the Otway tower has been superseded by a lower powered solar light placed on the cliff just below it, whereas the Wilsons Promontory light is still in the tower. This accounts for why the older, arguably more historic Otway tower is not on the list but the Promontory tower is.

Wilsons Promontory Lighthouse
Wilsons Promontory Lighthouse

Photo: Grant Maizels

The lease-back situation is why the whole lightstation is not listed in most cases. Early in the de-manning process, keepers' houses were sold off or taken over by state or local authorities and most are no longer in Commonwealth hands. The reason why a Commonwealth-owned property is not on the list is that it did not make the grade as a place of national significance. This does not mean that it has no heritage significance.

In Australia, there are four accepted levels of significance, national, state, regional and local. It would be wise to suspend judgement until the appearance of the National Heritage List of non-Commonwealth owned places before discussing strategies for the protection of the heritage values of most of our lights. Inevitably, many will fall into the state/regional/local categories and their fate will depend on the quality of our myriad local planning schemes, the nature of state legislation and the developer-friendliness or otherwise of state and local governments. Campaigns to ensure that individual lights are recognised and that protection is sound have to be based on detailed local knowledge. This means that most of the work will have to be done by local LoA members, co-opting others in their area who might have wider heritage concerns.

Email Cyril Curtain

Book review: 'The Lighthouse Stevensons'

by Erika Johnson, Caretaker, Swan Island Lighthouse

The Lighthouse Stevensons
The Lighthouse Stevensons
by Bella Bathurst


Followers of the recent TV series Seven Wonders of the Industrial World will have seen the episode which highlighted the Stevenson family, a dynasty of engineers, famous for building lighthouses.

The family is also the subject of Bella Bathurst's book, The Lighthouse Stevensons, an extraordinary story, which shows that there is far more to the Stevensons than just the Bell Rock.

Robert Louis Stevenson wrote:

"Whenever I smell salt water, I know I am not far from one of the works of my ancestors. The Bell Rock stands monument for my grandfather; the Skerry Vhor for my Uncle Alan; and when the lights come out at sundown along the shores of Scotland, I am proud to think they burn more brightly for the genius of my father." 

Robert Louis was the black sheep of the family, a sickly child, and, although he trained as an engineer, he is more famous for his writing.

Between 1790 and 1940, the Lighthouse Stevensons, as they became known, planned, designed and constructed 97 manned lighthouses around the coast of Scotland. They worked in conditions which would not be tolerated today and in places which would daunt even modern engineers. In addition, they built roads, harbours, railways, docks and canals all over Scotland and beyond.

It was Robert Louis' grandfather, Robert Stevenson, who founded the dynasty in 1786 when he entered into a partnership with his step-father, Thomas Smith, the then engineer for the Board of Northern Lighthouses. Robert became famous for the Bell Rock lighthouse where he and his team of construction workers played a nervous game of waiting for the tide and weather because the rock was completely submerged at high tide. 

Another site where they built a lighthouse was Skerry Vhor, described by Sir Walter Scott on a visit in 1814 as "a most desolate position for a lighthouse - the Bell Rock and Eddystone are a joke to it." 

Construction of the most northerly lighthouse on Muckle Flugga, a rock in the North Sea between the Shetland Islands and the Arctic Circle, proved just as much of a challenge as Bell Rock. It was commonplace for waves to sweep right over the top of the 200 foot rock during winter storms. While David Stevenson was making an initial survey he noted that a six-ton block of stone, 80 feet above sea level, had been uprooted and swept into the sea.

Not only did the Stevensons excel in building lighthouses, they made improvements to the optics. Thomas Smith did some experiments with reflectors which were further refined by his step-son Robert. Other members of the family adapted the work of Augustin and Leonor Fresnel to produce magnifying lenses. The huge myopic prismatic lens of the modern lighthouse is a lasting legacy to Tom Stevenson.

The last of the Lighthouse Stevensons, Alan Stevenson, died in 1971, two centuries and four generations after Robert Stevenson first joined Thomas Smith's engineering works. The lighthouses they built remain a monument to their courage and initiative. 

This book is a must read for all those who go to sea in ships, or just fascinated by these sentinels of the sea.

"The Lighthouse Stevensons", Bella Bathurst (HarperCollins 1999)

Email Erika Johnston

Australian News

MV Cape Don working bees

By Chris Nichols, Saving the MV Cape Don Society

MV Cape Don
MV Cape Don today

The Cape Don at Sydney Harbour
Photo:  Chris Nichols

The working bees are achieving remarkable progress towards the re-commissioning of the MV Cape Don. The email chat logs and reports reveal a deep affection for the 'brave little ship'. Readers of this Bulletin who wish to see the last remaining example of a Commonwealth Lighthouse Service tender in Australia restored to seaworthiness are encouraged to join the SMVCDS.

Excerpts from the reports generated by Chris Nichols and Derek Emerson-Elliott:

  • A thorough survey of the main crane was completed in preparation for lowering the jib. The task of seating the jib boom must be completed before the impending tow to Newcastle.
  • The battery backup system for the navigation lights is working, the ship's internal communication system is back on line, and more deck lights are operational. 
  • The monumental task of bringing the engine room and ship's machinery back into full commission is well under way. The re-establishment of the hydraulic steering link, which makes it possible to steer the ship from the bridge, is a significant recent victory. 
  • The rudder position indicator was made ready for testing, the small generator overhauled, and No 3 main generator is running the clarifier for the hot water system. 
  • Rust holes below the crosstrees on the mainmast have been repaired, so no more rainwater leaks down to the bridge and captain's cabin. 
  • The forward well deck and boat deck have been cleared, and much cleaning done below decks. In the bowels of the ship, the galley, pantry and crew's mess are being transformed into sparkling examples of cleanliness and good order.
  • The weed has been cleared from around the waterline, which will directly reduce the fuel costs during the forthcoming voyage to Newcastle. 
  • All the timber work and steel piping from the aft helicopter deck has been demolished and transferred to the foredeck ready for removal to a barge.
  • One of the Don's original workboats was donated to the WA Maritime Museum and restored about ten years ago. An approach to the museum may be made to requisition it and get it back into the davits.

Cape Don cabin
A cabin aboard the
MV Cape Don

Photo: Ian Clifford

To compliment the maintenance report, mention must be made of David Willenborg's special pasta banquet for the volunteers - the freshly showered crew seated before a five star meal washed down with fine wines and cold beer, while outside the brass-framed scuttles (windows), lightning forked over a storm-tossed Sydney Harbour, adding a truly maritime atmosphere to a snug and memorable occasion. 

Amongst the dinner guests was Andy Munns, Honorary Curator of the Australian Heritage Fleet, who spoke with passion and quiet authority about the importance of the Cape Don mission. Andy's knowledge of Australia's maritime heritage is prodigious, and his contribution to the SMVCDS is highly valued.

James Wynne, one of Australia's finest marine painters, and a good friend and regular guest on the Don, has executed a magnificent oil painting of the ship, which from all accounts, is startlingly beautiful and very realistic. Depicted as she emerges from the chrysalis of decay that has surrounded her for so long, with a sunny, wind-tossed Sydney Harbour in the background. The artist brought the work on board and it held pride of place during the Saturday dinner, the centre of many longing and admiring eyes. Paintings by James Wynne of this size and quality usually sell for about $4,000, but James has offered it at half that price to any member of the Society willing to allow prints to be made and sold for fundraising.

A photo of the painting will soon be displayed on the Yahoo Group website for those interested - but don't forget... first in, best dressed.

Previous MV Cape Don articles

Email Chris Nichols

Citadel Island lighthouse restored

Citadel Island lighthouse restoration
John Landy A.C dedicating the restored Citadel Island lighthouse

Photo:  John Ibbotson

by John Ibbotson, author "Lighthouses of Australia: Images from the End of an Era"

The former Citadel Island lighthouse has been restored by a group of enthusiasts from the Port Albert Maritime Museum. It is the original tower which sent its warning light from the top of the spectacular granite island off Wilsons Promontory since 1913.

Citadel Island lighthouse restoration
The plaque on the restored Citadel Island lighthouse

Photo:  John Ibbotson

It was the first automatic acetylene light installed by the Commonwealth Lighthouse Service. In 1982, it was removed and replaced by a GRP cabinet while the light was converted to solar power. The old lighthouse was stored at Port Albert, its fate uncertain.

John Ibbotson attended the official opening and display of the restored original lighthouse at Port Albert on 10 June 2004. The dedication was done by John Landy, A.C., M.B.E. Governor of Victoria and Mrs. Landy. 

The museum volunteers have done a superb job of doing the restoration. Port Albert is a great little museum and is a worthwhile place to visit for everybody interested in lighthouses. The museum is not open every day and the visitors are advised to check before heading down by phoning (03) 5183 2520.

Email John Ibbotson

South Neptune Island asbestos problem still not rectified

by Roger & Sue Cavanagh, former residents, South Neptune Island

South Neptune Island Lighthouse
South Neptune Island lighthouse

Photo:  Brian Lord

Despite a certain amount of media attention and questions by the public, the South Australian National Parks Service has done absolutely nothing to rectify the asbestos problem on South Neptune Island.

The keepers' cottages and associated buildings are part of the National Estate and have significant heritage value, but this still fails to move the authorities to do anything to maintain the buildings.

It is five years since any maintenance was carried out on South Neptune. We were the last residents there and did substantial work to upgrade the buildings. We obtained a quote for $60,000 to rectify the asbestos problem, and the response we got from National Parks a few weeks ago was that they were not interested in doing anything. It is unfortunate that this state government will not spend money on non-income-producing assets, so it looks as if South Neptune will be left to the elements.

Some people have said there is a water problem on South Neptune. We lived there for a number of years and always had more fresh rainwater than we needed. It is a beautiful place. The houses are magnificent structures built in 1902, of granite that was quarried on the island.

If you wish to lend us support in having the asbestos problem on South Neptune fixed so that the public will once again have access, please express your concerns to Mr John Hill, Minister for Environment and Heritage, Parliament House, North Terrace, Adelaide SA 5000. If a lot of people make a noise, something may be done.

Email Roger & Sue Cavanagh


Lighthouses of Australia 2004 Annual Dinner Weekend

Saturday 2 October 2004 & Sunday 3 October 2004

Lighthouses of Australia Inc invites friends and members join us for this year's LoA Inc Dinner, to be held in Launceston, Tasmania on Saturday, 2 October 2004.

Low Head Lighthouse
Low Head Lighthouse

Photo:  Jeff Jennings

The weekend will also incorporate a tour to the National Archives exhibition "Beacons by the Sea" on Australian lighthouses, and a visit to the Low Head Lighthouse and the Pilot Station Maritime Museum, also at Low Head.

Beacons by the Sea Exhibition at the Queen Victoria Museum
Where: Royal Park, 2 Wellington St, Launceston, ph (03) 6323 3777
When: Saturday, 2 October, 1pm

Lighthouses of Australia Inc Annual Dinner
Where: The function room, Royal Oak Hotel, cnr of Brisbane and Tamar Streets, Launceston, ph ( 03) 6331 5346. The hotel operates a bistro and charges very reasonable rates for meals. 
When:  Saturday, 2 October, 6.30pm

Low Head Pilot Station
Low Head Pilot Station

Photo:  Cyril Curtain

Tour of historic Low Head Pilot Station & Lighthouse Precinct
Where: Meet outside the Royal Oak Hotel in Launceston
When: Sunday, 2 October, 10am
The tour takes in Low Head Light as well as the Pilot Station. It is a forty-minute trip in either direction. Cost is $20 each for the hire of the bus. Bookings are essential. Make out cheque to Lighthouses of Australia Inc., include your name and contact details, and state that it is for the Low Head Tour. Post your payment to reach LoA Inc
by 25 September 2004, to:

Low Head Tour
Lighthouses of Australia Inc.
PO Box 4734
Knox City VIC 3152

For more details, and to register your attendance, please contact Christian Bell.

Please RSVP by 25 September 2004.

2005 Maatsuyker caretaker positions advertised

From the Saturday Mercury 28/8/2004

Maatsuyker Island Lighthouse
Maatsuyker Island Lighthouse

The Maatsuyker Island Lighthouse is Australia's most southerly, located off the tip of Tasmania.
Photo:  Jeff Jennings

Department of Tourism Parks and Heritage, Maatsuyker Island
Volunteer Caretaker & Weather Observer (paid)

The Parks and Wildlife Service is seeking to develop a register of volunteers to undertake duties to protect the natural and cultural values of Maatsuyker island, South West Tasmania.

Expressions of interest are sought from people willing to undertake volunteer duties on Maatsuyker island. In addition, volunteers will be required to enter into a separate contract with the Bureau of Meteorology to carry out weather observations for which an allowance will be paid. 

We are seeking a minimum of two people to stay on Maatsuyker island for at least six months at a time. Accommodation (with furniture) and transport to and from the island is provided. People will need to be self sufficient, have a current first aid certificate and undertake weather observation training. Duties include basic land management works, maintenance to buildings and plant, and weather observations.

Checking the weather instruments at Maatsukyer Island
Making weather observations

Keith Chapman doing the weather observations at Maatsuyker.
Photo:  Keith Chapman

A volunteer roster will be established for a twelve-month period - the first six-month time slot is planned to begin on Monday, 31 January 2005.

Applicants are encouraged to obtain an information package before submitting an application. 

Please telephone Albert Thompson at Parks and Wildlife Service, Southern District, Huonville Tasmania on telephone (03) 6264 8464, or by email to

For further information, please contact Albert Thompson by telephone after receiving the information package or by email.

Expressions of interest close on 4pm, Friday, 10 September 2004. 

Macquarie Lighthouse cottage for sale

compiled by Harvey Shore

The Head Lightkeepers cottage at Macquarie Lighthouse on South Head in Sydney has been placed on the market.  Details from recent newspaper reports are reproduced below:

Macquarie Lighthouse cottage for sale
Macquarie Lighthouse & cottages

Photo: Peter Morris, Sydney Morning Herald

'Cottage for sale - bathroom needs renovation'
by Tim Dick, Sydney Morning Herald newspaper, 30 June 2004

It's old, exposed and it has no view, but the three-bedroom cottage just south of the landmark Macquarie Lighthouse on the coastal cliffs near The Gap can be yours for just $1.95 million.

It is the location that allows the Macquarie Street neurosurgeon John Matheson to set that price for what remains of his 125-year lease over the historic Head keeper's cottage.

Freehold title is held by the Commonwealth Government, but the long lease excludes the public from its 1180 square-mere cliffside slice of one of Sydney's most historic sites, where Australia's first lighthouse was completed in 1818.

The original lighthouse, replaced in 1881 after its sandstone walls began to crumble, was designed by the architect Francis Greenway, who also designed the cottage. It has lasted much longer than the lighthouse, helped by significant alterations about 1830 and further renovations 50 years later.

It is a bit tired, but then it is nearly 200 years old, and the bathroom and kitchen were last renovated in the 1980s.

Only nominal rent is paid to the Commonwealth, whose ownership will be transferred to the Sydney Harbour Federation Trust later this year, but two years ago Dr Matheson and his wife, Jeanne Eve, sold a similar lease on the larger, adjacent assistant keeper's cottage for $2.52 million, after paying $820,000 for it in 1992.

The real estate agent handling the sale, Richard Cooper, said: "The purpose of the lease ... is to protect the lighthouse perimeter from development." But it also excludes members of the public from the land.

The conservation director of the National Trust, Jacqui Goddard, said the cottage was the oldest surviving part of an "incredibly important" site that used to control shipping into Sydney Harbour and still had a functioning lighthouse on it.

She said that while the National Trust generally opposed the privatisation of public space, including by long-term lease, in some cases doing so "allows continued occupancy and brings life to the place".

The alternative was public use of the buildings, but Ms Goddard said "there's probably an argument" for the cottage to be privately occupied and maintained.

'Finders can be keepers'
by Terry Smyth, Sydney Sun-Herald newspaper, Property section, page 58, 15 August 2004

Macquarie Lighthouse
Macquarie Lighthouse & cottages

Photo: Winsome Bonham

Robert Watson (who arrived in the First Fleet) was the original keeper at the Macquarie Light. He gave his name to the Sydney suburb in which the Macquarie Lighthouse stands - Watson's Bay. The first light in this location was a simple fire beacon, originally lit in 1791. It was replaced by a proper lighthouse in 1818, and the present famous structure, along with the head keeper's cottage, was built in 1883.

The light was automated in 1976.

Since then, many people have lived in the head keeper's sandstone 3-bedroom cottage on its 1180 sq m site. It's a heritage-protected building, so if you are the next resident you can't replace the slate roof, nor do much with the 1970s kitchen and bathroom except update their equipment. And in 119 years time you have to give the place back to the government. But until then, you'll have a great address - one of the best known lighthouses in Australia, promoted on several Australia Post stamps and countless postcards.

While Harvey Shore was searching for recent news stories about the lease of the headkeeper's cottage at Macquarie Lighthouse, Vaucluse, he came across a report from the Senate Estimates Committee hearings in Canberra on 30 May 2002, at which the following was recorded in Hansard: 

Output: 1. Division: Australian and World Heritage Division. Topic: Commonwealth Property Disposals. Hansard Page ECITA 445 

Macquarie Lighthouse
Macquarie Lighthouse & cottages

Photo: Annette Flotwell

Senator Crossin asked: 
Could the Australian Heritage Commission provide a list of Commonwealth properties for which disposal has been advised, national estate or otherwise? 

Attachment A provides a list of Commonwealth properties that the Australian Heritage Commission has received notification of disposal or lease during the 2001/02 financial year. Some may have been sold or leased since the advice was received." 

(There followed a list of Commonwealth properties under the heading "Disposals or lease of Commonwealth Properties in FY 2001-02". This list included the following properties listed as being under the responsibility of the Department of Finance): Head Lightkeeper's Quarters, Vaucluse; and Asst Lightkeeper's Quarters, Vaucluse.


LoA Inc will endeavour to keep readers up-to-date with the sale of the lighthouse keepers cottage.

Email Harvey Shore

John Ibbotson photographic exhibition

John Ibbotson and some of his photographs
John Ibbotson at a previous exhibition of his lighthouse photographs

Photo:  Denise Shultz

John Ibbotson, author and photographer of two lighthouse books Lighthouses of Australia - Images from the End of an Era, and Lighthouses of Australia - A Visitor's Guide, will be showing a photographic exhibition of two of his passions - lighthouses and Alaska, during September.

The exhibition is at The Highway Gallery, 14 The Highway, Mount Waverley, Victoria, from 18-30 September 2004, with an opening night on the 17 September.

For more information about John's lighthouse photography, visit his website at

Email John Ibbotson


Seeking information: George Whitnall & Thomas Howlett: Keepers at Crowdy Head

Crowdy Head Lighthouse
Crowdy Head Lighthouse

Photo: Ian Clifford

Dear LoA,

Could you supply me with information on two keepers that were on Crowdy Head Station in about 1880? Their names are George Whitnall and Thomas Howlett.


Malcolm Muir
Email Malcolm Muir

Dear Malcolm,

If you can locate the NSW 'Blue Books' for the era they contain most of records of employees in public service in NSW.

National Archives is your best bet: ph: (02) 6212 3600 or website:

Using RecordSearch is the easiest way to start a search for service records:


LoA Inc

Seeking information: Robert Wallace: Keeper at Bustard Head

Eliza and Robert Wallace
Eliza & Robert Wallace

Photo courtesy: Kathi Gaffy


While doing research for a friend, I came across this snippet of info on one of his GGGreats.

Bustard Head Lighthouse
Bustard Head Lighthouse

Photo: John Ibbotson

Robert Alfred Renforth Wallace (wife Eliza, née Payne) was a Keeper at Bustard Head for a number of years. One of his sons, Frederick Rooksby Wallace, was born at Bustard Head in 1894. The name Rooksby was given to his son after the name of the midwife who delivered him.

This is information from the Payne family history in Australia, written and researched by Carole Webb in 1996. Mrs Webb has since died, but her daughter has taken on the role of family researcher.

If someone has more information on this family, I would certainly appreciate it.


Kathi Gaffy
Email Kathi Gaffy

Hi Kathi,

Thanks for your letter. We have filed the information.

Bustard Head Lighthouse
Bustard Head Lighthouse

Photo: Winsome Bonham

Have you read Stuart Buchanan's "Lighthouse of Tragedy"? It is a comprehensive history of the Bustard Head Light Station.

There was a T. Rooksby who was head keeper from 1868 to 1902 but no Wallace mentioned. It might be assumed that the Head keeper's wife was the midwife who delivered young Fred. 

Here are the author's contact details:

Coral Coast Publications
PO Box 90
Samford QLD 4520
Phone/Fax: +61 (0)7 3289-1827

Australian price $29.95 (post free) 
Overseas price - contact the author for details

We would be pleased if you would forward any meaningful responses to your request so we can update our records.


LoA Inc

Seeking information: William Brown: Keeper at Rottnest Island

Rottnest Island Lighthouse
Plans for the original Rottnest Island Lighthouse

Photo: Rottnest Island Authority


I am researching my family tree & have been advised that my Great Great Grandfather, Mr William Brown, was a Lighthouse Keeper on Rottnest Island. When he returned to the mainland in 1884, one of his sons took over.

Could you please advise me as to where I maybe able to verify this information? I live in Queensland. Your advice would be appreciated.


Aileen Wilson
Always look on the bright side
Email Aileen Wilson

Hi Aileen,

Was the source that advised you about William Brown being at Rottnest in 1884 an official one or a family connection?

These things can be quite difficult to verify. If your source was from an original document then you have a good reference point to start from.

If it is family folklore then you may have problems as details tend to become vague or even erroneous over time. You may have to broaden you points of reference to allow for that.

You need to find where the 'blue books' for Western Australia for the period are stored. These should have the records of all the employees of the State at the time.

Try the State Records Office of WA: 

We would be pleased if you would forward any meaningful responses to your request so we can update our records.


LoA Inc

Seeking information: Samuel Westbrook: Keeper at Swan Island
This letter arrived in the Keeper's mailbox recently. Such information can stimulate further details from readers, and add to our records.

Swan Island Lighthouse
Swan Island Lighthouse

Photo: Jeff Jennings

Dear LoA, 

My maternal great-grandfather Samuel John Westbrook is listed on a Westbrook family genealogy site as having been a mariner and lighthouse keeper on Swan island in 1872. My grandmother Lillian Downward Westbrook was born on the island on January 12, 1870 and baptised there in 1872. Her sister Ada Jessie was born on the island on November 5 1871 and baptised there in 1872.

I'm afraid I have no details other details about my great-grandfather's time on the island but assume he worked under Superintendent Baudinet. He died in 1877 aged 40.

I don't know if this helps your research but would be grateful to receive any additional details that may come to light in the future.

Best wishes,

John Spence
Email John Spence

Concerned for the preservation of the Crookhaven Lighthouse

Crookhaven Heads Lighthouse
Crookhaven Heads Lighthouse

Photo: Kristie Eggleston

Dear LoA,

I, too, am concerned as to the state of the Crookhaven Lighthouse

Is it still in the state your most recent pictures depict? I am very interested (actively) in the preservation of this building. 

What do I do? Whom do I contact? I am sure a working party can get it into a reasonable state and vandal-proof it.


Jeff Allen
Email Jeff Allen

Dear Jeff,

This one keeps coming up and we have a few members who are trying to get something done, so the more the merrier.


They will be glad to hear from you.


LoA Inc

Join Lighthouses of Australia Inc.

It is up to those of you who believe in the Preservation, Protection and Promotion of Australia's lighthouse heritage to throw your hat into the ring, whether it just be a financial member or direct involvement on the committee, web pages, the Bulletin or some other aspect that could enrich the site. 

Application for Membership Form

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Sorry. We no longer take online applications.

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How can you help

If you have or know of material that Lighthouses of Australia (LoA) could use, we would love to hear from you.  Contact LoA with the details, or send us some feedback.

Please email Keeper or fill out the Feedback Form

What you can help with is:  

  • Location and correct names of lighthouses in Australia (currently have 115 on our research list and we believe the figure should be around 200) 
  • Good quality recent B&W or colour photos 
  • A bit of the background of these lights 
  • Technical history or operational data (such as how many flashes, etc)
  • Interesting historical stories or anecdotes 
  • Details of keepers
  • Details of lighthouse graves
  • Old photos or postcards 
  • Conservation and preservation issues
  • Errors or omissions 
  • Other pages on Australian lighthouses not listed here

For more information about how you can help LoA, visit the How You Can Help page.

Thanks to

Thanks to the following people for their help with this edition of the Bulletin:

  • Winsome Bonham (photos)
  • Roger & Sue Cavanagh (article)
  • Ian Clifford (photos)
  • Cyril Curtain (article & photos)
  • Dianne Ellis (photo)
  • Annette Flotwell (photo)
  • Kathi Gaffy (photo)
  • John Ibbotson (article & photos)
  • Jeff Jennings (photos)
  • Erika Johnson (article)
  • Ed Kavaliunas (photo)
  • Barbara Konkolowicz (photo)
  • Brian Lord (photo)
  • Grant Maizels (photo)
  • Steve Merson (articles & photos)
  • Peter Morris (photo)
  • Chris Nichols (article & photos)
  • Peter Sharp (photo)
  • Harvey Shore (information)
  • Denise Shultz (photo)
  • Marguerite Stephen (photos)
  • Louise Tieppo (photo)
  • Jeff Williams (photo)
  • (photo)
  • 4Cs Enterprises (photo)
  • Eye of the Needle (photo)
  • National Archives of Australia (photo)
  • Rottnest Island Authority (photo)
  • Senate Estimates Committee (information)
  • Sydney Morning Herald newspaper (article)
  • Sydney Sun-Herald newspaper (article)

Thanks to all the people who have put links to the site, and those who let LoA use their photos.


Got any news, experiences
or queries about lighthouses?
Steve Merson, News Editor
Contact Steve Merson
LoA News/Story Manager

Got any comments
or questions about this Bulletin?

Kristie Eggleston, Bulletin Editor
Contact Kristie Eggleston
LoA Bulletin Editor

Past Bulletins:  Past Monthly News, Preservation or Access Bulletins can be accessed from the Bulletin Index.

Contact Lighthouses of Australia Inc:  Contact details for various queries to Lighthouses of Australia Inc (LoA Inc).

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